Socket Set bolt,Mechanics of use
Description：Socket Set bolt--There are many systems for specifying the dimensions of screws, but in much of the world the ISO metric screw thread preferred series has displaced the many older systems.
The hand tool used to drive in most screws is called a screwdriver. A power tool that does the same job is a power screwdriver; power drills may also be used with screw-driving attachments. Where the holding power of the screwed joint is critical, torque-measuring and torque-limiting screwdrivers are used to ensure sufficient but not excessive force is developed by the screw. The hand tool for driving hex head threaded fasteners is a spanner (UK usage) or wrench (US usage).
Mechanics of use
When driving in a screw, especially when the screw has been removed and is being placed again, the threads can become misaligned and damage, or strip, the threading of the hole. To avoid this, slight pressure is applied and the screw is driven in reverse, until the leading edges of the helices pass each other, at which point a slight click will be felt (and sometimes heard.) When this happens, the screw will often assume a more aligned position with respect to the hole.
Immediately after the 'click', the screw may be driven in without damage to the threading. This technique is useful for re-seating screws in wood and plastic, and for assuring the proper fit when screwing down plates and covers where alignment is difficult.
See also: Screw thread
There are many systems for specifying the dimensions of screws, but in much of the world the ISO metric screw thread preferred series has displaced the many older systems. Other relatively common systems include the British Standard Whitworth, BA system (British Association), and the SAE Unified Thread Standard.
ISO metric screw thread
The basic principles of the ISO metric screw thread are defined in international standard ISO 68-1 and preferred combinations of diameter and pitch are listed in ISO 261. The smaller subset of diameter and pitch combinations commonly used in screws, nuts and bolts is given in ISO 262. The most commonly used pitch value for each diameter is known as the "coarse pitch". For some diameters, one or two additional "fine pitch" variants are also specified, for special applications such as threads in thin-walled pipes. ISO metric screw threads are designated by the letter M followed by the major diameter of the thread in millimeters, e.g. "M8". If the thread does not use the normal "coarse pitch" (e.g., 1.25 mm in the case of M8), then the pitch in millimeters is also appended with a multiplication sign, e.g. "M8×1" if the screw thread has an outer diameter of 8 mm and advances by 1 mm per 360° rotation.
The nominal diameter of a metric screw is the outer diameter of the thread. The tapped hole (or nut) into which the screw fits, has an internal diameter which is the size of the screw minus the pitch of the thread. Thus, an M6 screw, which has a pitch of 1 mm, is made by threading a 6 mm shaft, and the nut or threaded hole is made by tapping threads in a 5 mm hole.
The first person to create a standard (in about 1841) was the English engineer Sir Joseph Whitworth. Whitworth screw sizes are still used, both for repairing old machinery and where a coarser thread than the metric fastener thread is required. Whitworth became British Standard Whitworth, abbreviated to BSW (BS 84:1956) and the British Standard Fine (BSF) thread was introduced in 1908 because the Whitworth thread was a bit coarse for some applications. The thread angle was 55° and a depth and pitch of thread that varied with the diameter of the thread (i.e., the bigger the bolt, the coarser the thread). The spanner size is determined by the size of the bolt, not the distance between the flats.
The most common use of a Whitworth pitch nowadays is in all (UK) scaffolding where a 7/16" spanner size is required. A 21mm spanner is frequently used, and works for this application. Additionally, the standard photographic tripod thread, which for small cameras is 1/4" Whitworth (20 tpi) and for medium/large format cameras is 3/8" Whitworth (16 tpi). It is also used for microphone stands and their appropriate clips, again in both sizes, along with "thread adapters" to allow the smaller size to attach to items requiring the larger thread.
British Association screw threads (BA)
A later standard established in the United Kingdom was the BA system, named after the British Association for Advancement of Science. Screws were described as "2BA", "4BA" etc., the odd numbers being rarely used, except in equipment made prior to the 1970s for telephone exchanges in the UK. This equipment made extensive use of odd-numbered BA screws, in order -- it may be suspected -- to reduce theft. While not related to ISO metric screws, the sizes were actually defined in metric terms, a 0BA thread having a 1 mm pitch. These are still the most common threads in some niche applications. Certain types of fine machinery, such as moving-coil meters, tend to have BA threads wherever they are manufactured.